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In late spring and summer, for example, several hundred thousand Pacific walruses migrate from the Bering Sea into the Chukchi Sea through the relatively narrow Bering Strait. Most of the pacific walruses live on and between the northern coast of eastern Siberia and the northern shore of Alaska. [24], Gestation lasts 15 to 16 months. [89], The "walrus" in the cryptic Beatles song "I Am the Walrus" is a reference to the Lewis Carroll poem. What do walruses eat? Its first part is thought to derive from a word such as Dutch walvis "whale". The cows will then give birth to 1-2 live calves in the beginning of summer. [18] Length typically ranges from 2.2 to 3.6 m (7 ft 3 in to 11 ft 10 in). [62] There have been isolated observations of walruses preying on seals up to the size of a 200 kg (440 lb) bearded seal. Name Game. [58], The walrus has a diverse and opportunistic diet, feeding on more than 60 genera of marine organisms, including shrimp, crabs, tube worms, soft corals, tunicates, sea cucumbers, various mollusks, and even parts of other pinnipeds. O. rosmarus laptevi (debated). While some of these uses have faded with access to alternative technologies, walrus meat remains an important part of local diets,[77] and tusk carving and engraving remain a vital art form. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the walrus was heavily exploited by American and European sealers and whalers, leading to the near-extirpation of the Atlantic subspecies. Tusks are also used to form and maintain holes in the ice and aid the walrus in climbing out of water onto ice. These organisms have flabby bodies, which often spot pink or brown hue, with short fur lining most of their bodies except for their fins. The maximal number of teeth is 38 with dentition formula: 3.1.4.23.1.3.2, but over half of the teeth are rudimentary and occur with less than 50% frequency, such that a typical dentition includes only 18 teeth 1.1.3.00.1.3.0[4], Surrounding the tusks is a broad mat of stiff bristles ("mystacial vibrissae"), giving the walrus a characteristic whiskered appearance. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both a frontal and dorsal direction. [50] This population was nearly eradicated by commercial harvest; their current numbers, though difficult to estimate, probably remain below 20,000. These are elongated canines, which are present in both male and female walruses and can reach a length of 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and weigh up to 5.4 kg (12 lb). This strategy of delayed implantation, common among pinnipeds, presumably evolved to optimize both the mating season and the birthing season, determined by ecological conditions that promote newborn survival. What are walrus mating rituals like? Limits on commercial hunting allowed the population to increase to a peak in the 1970s-1980s, but subsequently, walrus numbers have again declined. [71] Polar bear–walrus battles are often extremely protracted and exhausting, and bears have been known to break away from the attack after injuring a walrus. [79] Several hundred are removed annually around Greenland. Since walruses have few natural predators, they don't really have to worry about being eaten while they slumber either. [85], Currently, two of the three walrus subspecies are listed as "least-concern" by the IUCN, while the third is "data deficient". David Attenborough, the series' narrator, blames the incident on changes to the Arctic ecosystem that walruses inhabit. The recorded largest tusks are just over 30 inches and 37 inches long respectively. During the 19th century and the early 20th century, walruses were widely hunted and killed for their blubber, walrus ivory, and meat. "Ecology and Biology of the Pacific Walrus, "The sensitivity of the vibrissae of a Pacific Walrus (, "Carnivorous walrus and some arctic zoonoses", "Izembek National Wildlife Report Sept 2015", "Stock Assessment Report: Pacific Walrus – Alaska Stock", "Status of Marine Mammals of the North Atlantic: The Atlantic Walrus", "Atlantic Walrus: Northwest Atlantic Population", "Disappearance of Icelandic Walruses Coincided with Norse Settlement", 10.1890/0012-9615(2001)071[0137:CDPOPA]2.0.CO;2, "Feeding behaviour of free-ranging walruses with notes on apparent dextrality of flipper use", "Feeding and Trophic Relationships of Phocid Seals and walruses in the Eastern Bering Sea", "Narwhals, Narwhal Pictures, Narwhal Facts", "Interactions between Polar Bears and Overwintering Walruses in the Central Canadian High Arctic", "North American Bear Center – Polar Bear Facts", "A review of Killer Whale interactions with other marine mammals: Predation to co-existence", "Hunting and Use of Walrus by Alaska Natives", "Use and preference for Traditional Foods among Belcher Island Inuit". Where do Walruses Live? Smaller numbers of males summer in the Gulf of Anadyr on the southern coast of the Siberian Chukchi Peninsula, and in Bristol Bay off the southern coast of Alaska, west of the Alaska Peninsula. The population of walruses dropped rapidly all around the Arctic region. [26] The vibrissae are attached to muscles and are supplied with blood and nerves, making them highly sensitive organs capable of differentiating shapes 3 mm (1⁄8 in) thick and 2 mm (3⁄32 in) wide. Antarctic pinnipeds are some of the most unique on Earth, ranging from the filter feeding crabeater seal to the carnivorous leopard seal. Fixed genetic differences between the Atlantic and Pacific subspecies indicate very restricted gene flow, but relatively recent separation, estimated at 500,000 and 785,000 years ago. Old males, in particular, become nearly pink. [4] Also like phocids, it lacks external ears. [81], The effects of global climate change are another element of concern. [30] This lower fat content in turn causes a slower growth rate among calves and a longer nursing investment for their mothers. Although Carroll accurately portrays the biological walrus's appetite for bivalve mollusks, oysters, primarily nearshore and intertidal inhabitants, these organisms in fact comprise an insignificant portion of its diet in captivity. Even in the presence of a free area, a herd of walruses does not disperse along the coastline, but keeps cumulatively, just as they dive together into the water. Every year, they cover 1,863 miles in migration. In October 2017, the Center for Biological Diversity announced they would sue the U.S.

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